University of Oxford

File(s) not publicly available

E06550: Aldhelm, in his prose On Virginity, names *Luke (the Evangelist, S00442) as an exemplary virgin, whose bones were translated to Constantinople after his death. Written in Latin in southern Britain, for the nuns at the monastery at Barking (south-east Britain), c. 675/686.

online resource
posted on 2018-09-20, 00:00 authored by bsavill
Aldhelm, prose On Virginity, 24

Lucas, praesago vituli simulacro ab Ezechiele designatus et tertius evangelicae praedicationis historiografus, qui apud Antiochiam medicinale cataplasma procurans primo purulentas corporum valitudines et aegrotas viscerum fibras ac deinde spiritales animarum incommoditates torrido dogmatum cauterio seu divini verbi flebotomo salubriter sanabat, usque septuagenarium ac quartum aetatis annum illibatae castitatis a comes pudicissimus permansisse memoratur. Igitur cum generale mortis naturae debitum suprema sorte persolverit, Constantino orbis gubernante monarchiam ossa illius ad tutelam regni Romanorum Constantinopolim translata leguntur.

'LUKE, described by Ezechiel in the figural image of a calf, and the third historiographer of the evangelical mission, who acquired at Antioch the poultices of medicine and first healed sanatively the festering sickness of bodies and the diseased fibres of inwards, and thereafter (healed) the spiritual disorders of souls with the searing cautery of doctrine or the blood-letting of the divine Word. He is said to have persevered as the purest devotee of unimpaired chastity up to the seventy-forth year of his life. Therefore, when he paid the universal death by his final dissolution, his bones were, as we read, translated to Constantinople for the safekeeping of the Roman dominion when Constantine was governing the monarchy of the world.'

Text: Ehwald, 1919, 256-7. Translation: Lapidge and Herren 1979, 81-2, lightly modified.


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Luke, the Evangelist : S00442

Saint Name in Source


Type of Evidence

Literary - Other


  • Latin

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Britain and Ireland

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

St Albans St Albans Verulamium

Major author/Major anonymous work


Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Composing and translating saint-related texts

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - monks/nuns/hermits

Cult Activities - Relics

Bodily relic - bones and teeth Transfer, translation and deposition of relics


Aldhelm’s prose treatise On Virginity (De Virginitate), for Abbess Hildelith and the nuns of Barking (south-east Britain), survives in twenty manuscripts, the earliest of which are 9th c. Together with its later, poetic counterpart, it forms what Bede described in 731 as a ‘twinned work’ (opus geminatum), although there is a notable difference between the content and style of the two sections, the second part constituting more than a straightforward ‘versification’ of the first (see E06659). Aldhelm (ob. 709/10) appears to have been a son of Centwine, king of the Gewisse or West Saxons (south-west Britain) from 676 until 682/5, when he abdicated and retired to a monastery. We do not know when Aldhelm himself took religious vows, but he definitely attended, perhaps for many years, Archbishop Theodore and Abbot Hadrian’s school at Canterbury (from shortly after 670?), and possibly studied at the Irish foundation of Iona, off the coast of north-west Britain (perhaps in the 660s?). Around 682/6 he became abbot of the West Saxon monastery of Malmesbury, and in 689 probably accompanied King Cædwalla on his pilgrimage to Rome (see E05710 and E06661). In 705/6 he was appointed ‘bishop west of the wood’ in his home kingdom (later identifiable with the diocese of Sherborne). (For all aspects of Aldhelm’s career see now Lapidge, 2007.) At the core of On Virginity is a lengthy catalogue of exemplary virgins, first men (Old Testament prophets; New Testament figures; martyrs and other saints of the Roman Empire), then women (Mary; martyrs and other saints of the Empire), followed by some remarks on a group of non-virginal, Old Testament sancti who in some sense prefigured Christ. As with Bede in his Marytrology (725/31), Aldhelm makes good use of Roman Martyrdoms and Acts in his accounts of many post-Biblical saints. Although he does not seem to have had the same range of hagiographical material at hand as Bede later would at the monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow (north-east Britain), his use of the texts is more creative, and he extensively reworks them in his characteristically florid prose style. The prose On Virginity presents difficulties with dating, but the author’s reference to himself in its preface as only a ‘servant’ (bernaculus) of the Church would seem to place it before his abbacy in 682/6 (ibid., 67-9). Meanwhile – if the twelfth-century chronicler John of Worcester is correct – Aldhelm’s chief dedicatee Hildelith only appears to have taken control over Barking in 675, thus allowing us to date the work cautiously to somewhere within 675/86. This is significant, since it suggests that the many Martyrdoms which Aldhelm used among his sources (including several translated from the Greek) were available to him in southern Britain before his probable visit to Rome in 689.


Aldhelm's main source for this passage is Isidore of Seville's On the Origin and Death of the Fathers, ch. 82 (Lapidge and Herren, 1979, 176).


Edition: Ehwald, R., Aldhelmi opera (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctores Antiquissimi 15; Berlin, 1919). Translation: Lapidge, M., and Herren, M., Aldhelm, The Prose Works (Cambridge, 1979). Further reading: Lapidge, M., "The Career of Aldhelm," Anglo-Saxon England 36 (2007), 15-69.

Usage metrics

    Evidence -  The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity



    Ref. manager