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E05253: Latin Orationale of the Old Hispanic Liturgy of the 7th c. (Orationale Visigothicum), with prayers used on the feasts of saints in January and February: *Iulianus/Ioulianos and Basilissa (martyrs of Egypt, S01341), *Innocents (children killed on the orders of Herod, S00268), *Fructuosus, Auguris and Eulogius (bishop and his two deacons, martyrs of Tarragona, S00496), *Vincent (deacon and martyr of Saragossa and Valentia, S00290), the Chair of *Peter the Apostle (S00036).

online resource
posted on 2018-03-24, 00:00 authored by mszada
Orationale Visigothicum


The Orationale Visigothicum contains prayers for use in the divine office on every day of year. The prayers are ordered according to the liturgical seasons. Generally the prayers are divided into benedictiones (blessings) and completuriae (closing prayers), and aliae (other), and sometimes it is specified whether they should be applied during the matutinal or vespertine office. The number of prayers given for a day varies. In our database we are providing summaries only of the entries that relate to the feasts of saints.

7 January: the feast of Julianus and Basilissa. The completuria and benedictio (nos. 420–421) to be used both at Matins and Vespers. The prayers praise the martyrs as a chaste, celestial marriage and Christian models for both men and women. The benedectio also mentions one of their companions, Celsius, a boy 'who could not suffer to be separated from the side of the martyr [Julian]' (a latere martiris non passus est dividi, cf. Martyrdom of Julianus and Basilissa 46: Celsius, qui numquam a latere sancti Iuliani fuit disiunctus).

[8 January:] the feast of Innocents (Allisio Infantum). The date is not explicitly given, the prayers are placed between those for the feast of Julianus and Basilissa and those for the feast of Fructuosus, Auguris and Eulogius on 21 January. Later Mozarabic calendars note that the feast of Innocents was celebrated in Spain on 8 January. The prayers (nos. 422-445), both for the Vespers and the Matins, explore the subject of innocence. The intercession of the martyrs is expected to give the people in prayer the purity and blamelessness necessary to enter heaven. The Church is compared to the mother who is weeping for her children.

21 January: the feast of Fructuosus, Auguris, and Eulogius. 23 prayers for both Vespers and Matins (nos. 446–468). The prayers praise the saints, not only as martyrs, but also as exemplary clerics (they are all described as sacerdotes, though only Fructuosus was a bishop, Auguris and Eulogius were his deacons – in prayers they are also described as diaconi or levitae). Their death by burning is explicitly mentioned in several prayers, and the three martyrs are compared to the Three Youths in the Furnace (especially nos. 449–454; cf. Martyrdom of Fructuosus, Augurius and Eulogius 5, $E###) and the prayers are accompanied by the antiphons taken from the Book of Daniel. Additionally, in prayer 523, one of the prayers for the last Sunday before Lent (carnes tollendas), the rubric says: Item completuria post explicitas laudes quas psallendo vadunt usque ad sancta Iherusalem que in sancto Fructuoso dicenda est ('Moreover, a closing prayer said on the day of saint Fructuosus after the lauds which they chant in procession to the holy Jerusalem').

22 January: the feast of Vincent. 27 prayers for both Vespers and Matins (nos. 469–495); they mention that the martyr was imprisoned in a dark place (cf. Martyrdom of Vincent 15), tortured by fire (in 493 he is compared to the Three Youths; cf. Martyrdom of Vincent 17) and later thrown into the sea (cf. Martyrdom of Vincent 24–25).

22 February: the feast of the Chair of Peter. 11 prayers for both Vespers and Matins (nos. 496-506). The feast is presented as the commemoration of the day on which Peter was ordained a bishop (prayer no. 496). Peter is praised as the one who leads the Church and as the rock (petra) on which it is build, he has the power of forgiving and retaining sins and keeps the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven.

Summary by M. Szada.


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Ioulianos and Basilissa, martyrs in Egypt, ob. 305/311 : S01341 Fructuosus, Auguris and Eulogius, bishop and his two deacons, martyrs of Tarragona, Spain : S00496 Vincent, deacon and martyr of Saragossa and Valencia : S00290 Peter the Apostle : S0

Saint Name in Source

Iulianus et Basilissa Fructuosus, Augurius, Eulogius Vincentius Petrus Infantes, parvuli, innocentes tres pueri, Ananias, Asarias, Misahel, Misael

Type of Evidence

Liturgical texts - Other Late antique original manuscripts


  • Latin

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Iberian Peninsula

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Osset Osset Osen (castrum) Osser castrum

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Service for the Saint

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast


The Orationale Visigothicum (Visigothic book of prayers), otherwise known as the Verona Orational or Libellus Orationum, is a late 7th or early 8th century liturgical book of Old Hispanic Rite, the oldest manuscript representing this variant of Latin liturgy. A firm terminus ante quem for the creation of the manuscript is a marginal note on fol. 3v mentioning the twentieth year of the reign of the Lombard king Liutprand (i.e. 732), by which time the book had already travelled to Italy. The manuscript is written in Visigothic minuscule of a very good quality; it is not certain in which Spanish scriptorium it was produced, though sometimes Tarragona is proposed because of the mention of the procession to the church of Jerusalem on the day of saint Fructuosus (the rubric of prayer no. 523, E05253, see Vives 1946, xxxiv; Diaz y Diaz 1997; Vivancos 2006, 133-134). For the churches known as 'Jerusalem' in Spain, see discussion in E03511. The manuscript was transported from Spain, first to Sardinia (there is a cursive note on fol. 1, made by a certain Sergius Bicidominus of Cagliari), then to Pisa (as the note about King Liutprand records), and then to Verona (as evidenced by the notes added by 8th century Veronese scribes). Today the manuscript is kept in Biblioteca Capitolare in Verona as ms. LXXXIX (84). For a more detailed discussion of the manuscript, its dating, and palaeographical analysis, see the introduction by José Vives and Jeronimo Claveras to the critical edition, and Vivencos 2006. See also and The codex has been digitised and can be consulted here: The Orationale is also preserved in another manuscript: British Library Add. 30852, most probably from the 9th c. Its text, however, is much less correct than that of Verona LXXXIX (84).


Edition: Vives, J., Oracional visigotico (Monumenta Hispaniae Sacra. Serie liturgica 1; Barcelona: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1946). Further reading: Lowe, E.A., Codices Latini Antiquiores: A Palaeographical Guide to Latin Manuscripts prior to the Ninth Century. Part 4: Italy. Perugia – Verona, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1947), no. 515. See on Earlier Latin Manuscripts: Vivancos, M.C., "El oracional visigótico de Verona: notas codicológicas y paleográficas," Cuadernos de Filologia Clásica. Estudios Latinos 26 (2006), 121-144.