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E04573: Gregory of Tours, in his Miracles of Martin (4.36), describes how a woman struck dumb, whom soothsayers (arioli) were unable to help, was cured when Eustenia, Gregory's niece, poured some oil from the tomb of *Martin (ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397, S00050) into her mouth; AD 591. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 591/594.

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posted on 2018-01-11, 00:00 authored by kwojtalik
Gregory of Tours, Miracles of Martin (Libri de virtutibus sancti Martini episcopi) 4.36

Coniux Serenati hominis nostri, cum de cultura, viro praemisso, rediret, subito inter manus dilapsa comitantium terrae corruit, ligataque lingua, nullum verbum ex ore potens proferre, obmutuit. Interea accedentibus hariolis ac dicentibus, eam meridiani daemonii ineursum pati, ligamina herbarum atque incantationum verba proferebant; sed nihil medicaminis iuxta morem conferre poterant periturae.

Cumque familia mixto ululatu perstreperet, filius eius ad neptam nostram Eusteniam anhelus occurrit, nuntians, matrem suam extremae vitae terminum attigisse. Quae adveniens ad aegrotam eamque visitans, amotis ligaminibus quae stulti indiderant, oleum beati sepulchri ori eiusinfudit ceraque sofivit. Mox sermone reddito, nequitiae dolo dirempto, aegra convaluit.

'The wife of Serenatus, one of my servants, was returning from working in the fields. Her husband had gone on ahead. Suddenly she fell into the hands of her companions and slipped to the ground; because her tongue was tied and she was unable to pronounce any words with her mouth, she became mute. Then soothsayers (harioli) came and said that she had suffered an attack by a midday demon (meridianium daemonium). They administered ligaments of herbs (ligamina herbarum) and verbal incantations; but as usual they could provide no medicine for the woman on the verge of death.

While her family mixed shouts with their weeping, her son ran breathlessly to my niece Eustenia. He announced that his mother had reached the end of her life. Eustenia went and visited the sick woman, and after removing the ligaments that the foolish [soothsayers] had attached, she poured oil from the blessed tomb into her mouth and rubbed it with wax. Soon the ill woman’s speech was restored, and after the evil deception was removed, she recovered.'

Text: Krusch 1969, 208-209. Translation: Van Dam 1993, 299-300, modified (= de Nie 2015, 835-837).


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Martin, ascetic and bishop of Tours, ob. 397 : S00050

Type of Evidence

Literary - Hagiographical - Collections of miracles


  • Latin

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Gaul and Frankish kingdoms

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc


Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Tours Tours Tours Toronica urbs Prisciniacensim vicus Pressigny Turonorum civitas Ceratensis vicus Céré

Major author/Major anonymous work

Gregory of Tours

Cult activities - Places

Burial site of a saint - tomb/grave

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle after death Exorcism

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Women Slaves/ servants Pagans Aristocrats

Cult Activities - Relics

Contact relic - oil Contact relic - wax


Gregory, of a prominent Clermont family with extensive ecclesiastical connections, was bishop of Tours from 573 until his death (probably in 594). He was the most prolific hagiographer of all Late Antiquity. He wrote four books on the miracles of Martin of Tours, one on those of Julian of Brioude, and two on the miracles of other saints (the Glory of the Martyrs and Glory of the Confessors), as well as a collection of twenty short Lives of sixth-century Gallic saints (the Life of the Fathers). He also included a mass of material on saints in his long and detailed Histories, and produced two independent short works: a Latin version of the Acts of Andrew and a Latin translation of the story of The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. Gregory's Miracles of Martin (full title Libri de virtutibus sancti Martini episcopi, 'Books of the Miracles of Saint Martin the Bishop'), consists of four books of miracles, 207 chapters in all, effected by Martin, primarily at his grave and shrine in Tours. Most of them occurred at the time of the saint's festivals, on 4 July and 11 November. Gregory tried to record the miracles in chronological order, so historians have been able to calculate quite precisely the dates of the events and miracles mentioned in the work. This fairly precise chronology has enabled scholars to determine the dates of completion of each book. There have been three main dating schemes proposed for the composition of the four books. The oldest was suggested by Monod in 1872, another by Krusch in 1885, and then one by Van Dam in 1993 (for fuller discussion, see Shaw 2015, 103-105). Their datings of the individual books do not vary substantially, and in our entries we have given only those of Van Dam. Shaw 2015 convincingly demolishes an earlier theory, that Gregory wrote the Miracles in two distinct stages: a first stage that was written during a particular period, and a second stage in the early 590s, in which Gregory revised the whole work. Book 1, with 40 chapters, was written between 573 and 576. In the prologue, Gregory mentions that he started writing after he became bishop of Tours in August 573. Book 1 must have been completed by 576, since Venantius Fortunatus in a letter to Gregory of that year referred to it (Epistula ad Gregorium 2, prefatory letter to Fortunatus' Life of Martin, MGH Auct. ant. 4.1, p. 293). Book 2 consists of 60 chapters. It must have been finished before November 581, because the last miracles it mentions occurred in November 580, while the first ones recorded in Book 3 happened in November 581. Using the same methodology, the completion of Book 3, which also covers 60 chapters, can be dated between 587 and July 588. Book 4, which consists of 47 chapters, seems never to have been completed, presumably because of Gregory’s death. There are two main arguments in support of the idea that it is unfinished. Firstly, Book 4 has no conclusion and no tidy number of chapters, while each of Books 1 to 3 has these elements. Secondly, the last story recorded in Book 4 is not about Gregory himself, unlike the final stories of Books 2 and 3. Book 1 covers miracles that occurred before Gregory’s episcopate in Tours. The next three books are a running chronicle of Martin’s miracles under Gregory’s episcopate. Some of the miracles are recorded in very summary form, while others are much more elaborately presented: because of this, it has been argued that Gregory first jotted down notes, and only subsequently gave the stories full literary treatment (which in some cases, he was never able to do). The three completed books of the Miracles of Martin were probably released as they were completed, rather that published together. In this sense they are the exception amongst Gregory's writings, since the rest of his work was not finally completed and seems to have been unpublished at the time of his death. For discussion of the work, see: Krusch, B. (ed.), Gregorii episcopi Turonensis miracula et opera minora (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum 1,2; 2nd ed.; Hannover, 1969), 2–4. Monod, G., Études critiques sur les sources de l’histoire mérovingienne, 1e partie (Paris, 1872), 42–45. Shaw, R., "Chronology, Composition and Authorial Conception in the Miracula," in: A.C. Murray (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden-Boston, 2015), 102–140. Van Dam, R., Saints and Their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul (Princeton, 1993), 142–146, 199.


Eustenia was a daughter of Gregory's unnamed sister and her husband Justinus, and the wife of Nicetius.


Editions and translations: Krusch, B. (ed.), Gregorii episcopi Turonensis miracula et opera minora (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum 1,2; 2nd ed.; Hannover, 1969), 134–211. Van Dam, R. (trans.), Saints and Their Miracles in Late Antique Gaul (Princeton, 1993), 200–303. de Nie, G. (ed. and trans.), Lives and Miracles: Gregory of Tours (Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library 39; Cambridge MA, 2015), 421–855. Further reading: Murray, A.C. (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden-Boston, 2015). Shanzer, D., "So Many Saints – So Little Time ... the Libri Miraculorum of Gregory of Tours," Journal of Medieval Latin 13 (2003), 19–63.

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