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E02178: Gregory of Tours, in his Histories (5.27), tells how, in 579, the deposed bishops, Salonius of Embrun and Sagittarius of Gap, were detained in the church of *Marcellus (martyr of Chalon-sur-Saône, S00323), in Saint-Marcel-lès-Chalon (near Chalon, eastern Gaul). Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 579/594.

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posted on 23.12.2016, 00:00 by kwojtalik
Gregory of Tours, Histories (Historiae) 5.27

Anno quoque quarto Childeberthi, qui fuit 18. Guntchramni et Chilperici regum, apud Cavellonum civitatem sinodus acta est ex iussu principis Guntchramni; discussisque diversis causis, contra Salonium et Sagittarium episcopos iteratur illa antiqua calamitas. Obiciuntur eis crimina, et non solum de adulterium, verum etiam de homicidiis accusantur. Sed haec per paenitentiam purgari censentis episcopi, illud est additum, quod essent rei maiestatis et patriae proditores. Qua de causa ab episcopato discincti, in basilica beati Marcelli sub custodia detruduntur. Ex qua per fugam lapsi, discesserunt per diversa vagantes, donec in civitatibus eorum alii subrogati sunt.

'By command of King Guntram a council was held in the city of Chalon-sur-Saône in the fourth year of Childebert’s
reign, which was the eighteenth of that of Guntram and Chilperic. Many matters were discussed, but after a while they turned to discussing yet again the old cause célèbre of Salonius and Sagittarius. A number of charges were levelled against them, and they were accused not only of adultery but even of murder. The bishops present were all of the opinion that such things could be purged by penitence, so that further charges of lèse-majesté and treason were added. As a result Salonius and Sagittarius were stripped of their bishoprics and imprisoned in the church of the blessed Marcellus, with a guard to watch over them. They managed to escape and became wanderers on the face of the earth. Meanwhile new bishops were elected in their dioceses.'

Text: Krusch and Levison 1951, 233. Translation: Thorpe 1974, 291; lightly modified.

History

Evidence ID

E02178

Saint Name

Marcellus, martyr at Chalon-sur-Saone in Gaul, ob.? : S00323

Saint Name in Source

Marcellus

Type of Evidence

Literary - Other narrative texts (including Histories)

Language

Latin

Evidence not before

579

Evidence not after

594

Activity not before

579

Activity not after

589

Place of Evidence - Region

Gaul and Frankish kingdoms

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Tours

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Tours Tours Tours Toronica urbs Prisciniacensim vicus Pressigny Turonorum civitas Ceratensis vicus Céré

Major author/Major anonymous work

Gregory of Tours

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - bishops

Source

Gregory of Tours wrote the Histories (Historiae) during his episcopate in Tours (573–594). They constitute the longest and most detailed historical work of the post-Roman West. Gregory's focus is Gaul under its Frankish kings, above all the territories of Tours and (to a lesser extent) Clermont, where he had been born and brought up. Much of his work tells of the years when, as bishop of an important see, he was himself centrally involved in Frankish politics. The Histories are often wrongly referred to as a History of the Franks. Although the work does contain a history of the rulers of Francia, it also includes much hagiographical material, and Gregory himself gave it the simple title the 'ten books of Histories' (decem libri historiarum), when he produced a list of his own writings (Histories 10.31). The Histories consist of ten books whose scope and contents differ considerably. Book 1 skims rapidly through world history, with biblical and secular material from the Creation to the death in AD 397 of Martin of Tours (Gregory’s hero and predecessor as bishop). It covers 5596 years. In Book 2, which covers 114 years, the focus moves firmly into Gaul, covering the years up to the death of Clovis in 511. Books 3 and 4, which cover 37 and 27 years respectively, then move fairly swiftly on, closing with the death of king Sigibert in 575. With Book 5, through to the final Book 10, the pace slows markedly, and the detail swells, with only between two and four years covered in each of the last six books, breaking off in 591. These books are organised in annual form, based on the regnal years of Childebert II (r. 575-595/6). There continues to be much discussion over when precisely Gregory wrote specific parts of the Histories, though there is general agreement that none of it was written before 575 and, of course, none of it after Gregory's death, which is believed to have occurred in 594. Essentially, scholars are divided over whether Gregory wrote the Histories sequentially as the years from 575 unfolded, with little or no revision thereafter, or whether he composed the whole work over the space of a few years shortly before his death and after 585 (see Murray 2015 for the arguments on both sides). For an understanding of the political history of the time, and Gregory's attitude to it, precisely when the various books were written is of great importance; but for what he wrote about the saints, the precise date of composition is of little significance, because Gregory's attitude to saints, their relics and their miracles did not change significantly during his writing-life. We have therefore chosen to date Gregory's writing of our entries only within the broadest possible parameters: with a terminus post quem of 575 for the early books of the Histories, and thereafter the year of the events described, and a terminus ante quem of 594, set by Gregory's death. (Bryan Ward-Perkins, David Lambert) For general discussions of the Histories see: Goffart, W., The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D. 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Princeton, 1988), 119–127. Murray, A.C., "The Composition of the Histories of Gregory of Tours and Its Bearing on the Political Narrative," in: A.C. Murray (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden and Boston, 2015), 63–101. Pizarro, J.M., "Gregory of Tours and the Literary Imagination: Genre, Narrative Style, Sources, and Models in the Histories," in: Murray, A Companion to Gregory of Tours, 337–374.

Discussion

The church of Marcellus was located about two kilometres outside Chalon-sur-Saône. It is mentioned four times in Gregory's Histories: at 5.27 (discussed here), 9.3 (see E02329), 9.27 ($02359), and 10.10 (see E02372). In each case it is a place where people sought sanctuary. In 583/584 king Guntram rebuilt the church and constructed there a monastery, and in 592 he was buried there. After the times of Gregory, it served as the funerary church for the bishops (Vieillard-Troiekouroff 1976, pp. 264-265).

Bibliography

Edition: Krusch, B., and Levison, W., Gregorii episcopi Turonensis Libri historiarum X (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum I.1; 2nd ed.; Hannover, 1951). Translation: Thorpe, L., Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks (Penguin Classics; London, 1974). Further reading: Murray, A.C., "The Composition of the Histories of Gregory of Tours and Its Bearing on the Political Narrative", in: A.C. Murray (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden-Boston 2015), 63-101. Vieillard-Troiekouroff, M., Les monuments religieux de la Gaule d'après les œuvres de Grégoire de Tours (Paris, 1976).

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