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E02109: Coptic Martyrdom of Apa *Phoibammon (soldier and martyr of Assiut, S00080), presented by Kolouthos, the Stylite, giving an account of his family background, trial, and martyrdom in Assiut (Upper Egypt) which includes other soldiers *Orsunouphios and Ischerion (soldiers and martyrs from the garrison of Esna, S01200), as well as *Belphios, Origen, and Peter (soldiers and martyrs from the garrison of Aswan, S01201), datable to the 6th/7th century.

online resource
posted on 2016-12-12, 00:00 authored by gschenke
Pierpont Morgan Codex M 582, folia 1r–20v:

In this epic style martyrdom, the soldier martyr is described as being of pagan descent, tried under Clodius Culcianus, the prefect of Egypt (AD 301–306) at the city of Assiut at the age of thirty (f. 2r II,9–10). Arrested at his military camp (castron) in Preht (ⲡⲣⲉϩⲧ), after refusing to sacrifice to the imperial gods, he is taken upstream (south) to Antionoopolis (Middle Egypt) and Assiut (Upper Egypt) for separate trials. At Assiut he meets five other soldier martyrs: Orsunouphios, Ischerion from the garrison near Esna, as well as Belphios, Origen, and Peter from the garrison near Aswan. At Assiut, the saints are tried by a dux named Maximinian holding court in the public bath.

§§ 1–19: The imperial edict against the Christians unfolds under Diocletian, eventually reaching the military camp (castron) of Preht where all soldiers were gathered to sacrifice to the imperial gods. One of the soldiers named Phoibammon refused to do so claiming that there is only one God, the Christian one. Phoibammon is slapped in the face for his disrespect by the army commander, and in turn takes off his soldier belt throwing it back at the commander. The young soldier is immediately arrested.

§§ 20–31: The 31 year old soldier’s sister Sarah is mentioned as a very humble woman who cared for the sick. His pagan parents, after hearing that he had been imprisoned come to visit him. A fierce verbal exchange takes place between them concerning the nature of gods and the right religion. His father asks him to just sacrifice to the imperial gods, if everyone else is doing so. An angry and dismissive Phoibammon sends his parents away and retires to the barracks where he changes his cloths form an official tunic (kamision) to a liturgical tunic (sticharion).

§§ 32–70: First vision: As Phoibammon prays to Christ to give him strength, the angel Gabriel appears assuring him that his crown and throne are already prepared and that he has been serving Phoibammon ever since his childhood. From there springs a discussion about whether the angels wish to serve human kind or whether they are just ordered to do so (§§ 39–45), in which the angel answers truthfully that he is ordered to do so, and that given the choice, he certainly would never step onto this defiled earth. Gabriel then goes on to explain how the justice of God works (§§ 46–50) and pronounces what is to happen to the world in general and to the saint in particular (§§ 51–70).

§§ 71–80: Phoibammon is asked to sacrifice, but refuses and shames his army commander, the emperor, and his gods.

§§ 81–98: The commander asks the saint’s parents to speak to him, but the saint refuses their help and good will. Frustrated they renounce him as their son and claim that he is a magician.

§§ 99–110: When the saint still refuses to sacrifice, he is referred to the court of the dux.

§§ 111–134: Phoibammon is stripped and bound and put on a boat going south to Assiut. As the saint prayed to Christ, the boat came to a complete stop in the middle of the river. Christ appeared to the saint, gave him strength and released him from the irons in which he was cast, much to the dismay of the four soldiers who were ordered to escort the saint to Assiut.

§§ 135–143: Once the boat reached Assiut, the saint is brought to shore and led to the city gate where he met other men brought to court ready to become martyrs. These were Orsunouphios and Ischerion from the garrison of Esna, as well as Belphios, Origen, and Peter from the garrison of Aswan (§ 136). All six of them greet and encourage each other, before they are taken to the court.

§§ 144–169: The court is set up in the city’s public bath, and Phoibammon is dragged out onto the bema (raised platform). The comes (count) Maximianos conducting the trial, hears claims that the saint is a magician (§ 153), according to the testimony of his parents, and believes in Jesus, the ruler of demons. Immediately, the numerarius uttering these claims falls to the ground possessed by a demon, starts to attack the comes with a sword, and scorns the emperor and the imperial gods. For this display of his powers, the saint is tortured. The comes demands that the saint releases the man from the demon, but the saint demands in turn that the man professes the God of saint Apa Phoibammon first:

§ 161: ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ⲇⲉ ⲡⲉϫⲁϥ ⲛⲁϥ · ϫⲉ ⲙⲁⲣⲉϥϩⲟⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲉⲓ ϫⲉ ϯⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲩⲉ · ⲁⲩⲱ ϯϩⲟⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲉⲓ ⲙⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛⲁⲡⲁ
ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ · ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲇⲁⲓⲙⲟⲛⲓⲟⲛ ⲛⲁⲥⲁϩⲱⲱϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲙⲟϥ · ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲧⲉⲩⲛⲟⲩ · ⲁϥⲱϣ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛϭⲓ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲙⲉⲣⲁⲣⲓⲟⲥ ϫⲉ
ϯⲡⲓⲥⲧⲉⲩⲉ ⲉⲣⲟⲕ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ · ⲛⲧⲉⲩⲛⲟⲩ ⲁⲡⲇⲁⲓⲙⲟⲛⲟⲛ ⲥⲁϩⲱⲱϥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ·

‘Apa Phoibamon then said to him: “Let him confess as follows: I believe and I profess the God of Apa Phoibamon, and the demon will remove himself from him.” Immediately, the numerarius cried out: “I believe in you, God of Apa Phoibamon!” At once, the demon left him.’

The dux (comes) then turned to the saint and demanded that he sacrifices. The saint refuses and is severely tortured.

§§ 170–186: The soldiers Orsunouphrios, Ischerion, Belphius, and Origen are brought in one after another to sacrifice. They each refuse and are subjected to torture as a result.

§§ 187–206: Phoibammon is brought back to the court and refuses again to sacrifice. The dux then orders his attendants to throw the saint into a pot of boiling lead. The saint prays to Christ and the lead settles down in the pot and does not harm him. The angry dux orders him to be hung on the torturing rack (hermetarion). The saint makes the sign of the cross, and the torturing rack collapses, toppling the seat of the dux and shacking the bath to its foundations. New sets of tortures are likewise destroyed by the sign of the cross made by the saint, so much so that the dux gets so angry that he curses all Christians.

§§ 203–206: This general curse against Christians then brings the saint to his most intimidating miracle, as he punishes the dux.

ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ⲇⲉ ⲡⲉϫⲁϥ ⲙⲡⲇⲟⲩⲝ ϫⲉ ⲉⲡⲓⲇⲏ ⲁⲕⲧⲟⲗⲙⲁ ⲁⲕϫⲓⲟⲩⲁ ⲉⲡⲣⲁⲛ ⲙⲡⲁⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲡⲁⲓ ⲉⲧⲉ ⲛⲅⲥⲟⲟⲩⲛ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ⲁⲛ ·
ⲟⲩⲇⲉ ⲧⲉϥϭⲟⲙ · ⲙⲛ ⲡⲉϥⲉⲟⲟⲩ · ⲉϥⲉⲧⲱⲃⲉ ⲛⲁⲕ ϩⲉⲛⲟⲩϭⲉⲡⲏ ⲧⲁⲣⲉⲕⲓⲙⲉ ϫⲛⲧⲟϥ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ⲛⲧⲡⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲕⲁ ⲡⲉⲭⲥ ⲓⲥ ⲡⲁⲓ
ⲉⲧⲉⲡⲱϥ ⲡⲉ ⲡⲉⲟⲟⲩ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲁⲙⲁϩⲧⲉ ϣⲁ ⲉⲛⲉϩ ⲛⲉⲛⲉϩ ϩⲁⲙⲏⲛ · ⲛϩⲟⲥⲟⲛ ⲉⲣⲉ ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲙⲟⲛ ϣⲁϫⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲇⲟⲩⲝ ⲉⲓⲥ
ⲟⲩϩⲙϩⲁⲗ ⲛⲧⲉ ⲡⲕⲟⲙⲓⲥ ⲁϥⲉⲓ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲧⲥⲓⲟⲟⲩⲛ ⲡⲉϫⲁϥ ⲙⲡⲇⲟⲩⲝ ϫⲉ ⲡⲁϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲥⲱⲧⲙ ⲉⲣⲟⲓ ⲛⲉⲣⲉ ⲡⲉⲕϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲙⲙⲟⲛⲟⲅⲉⲛⲉⲥ ⲙⲟⲟϣⲉ ⲛϩⲟⲩⲛ ⲉⲡⲉⲡⲣⲉⲧⲱⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲁⲩϫⲟ ϩⲉ ⲉϫⲱϥ ⲁϥⲙⲟⲩ ⲛⲧⲉⲩⲛⲟⲩ

‘Apa Phoibamon said to the dux: “Since you have been so daring and have cursed the name of my God, this one whom you do not know – neither his power nor his glory – he shall take revenge on you quickly, so that you recognise that he is the God of heaven and earth, Jesus Christ, this one whose is the glory and the power eternally. Amen!’ While Apa Phoibammon was still speaking with the dux, behold a servant of the comes entered the public bath. He said to the dux: ‘My Lord, listen to me: As your only son was walking into the praetorium, a wall collapsed onto him and he died immediately.”’

The dux is so shattered, he orders the saint to be put in the furnace of the bath for six days and nights, assuming that this will be the end of him.

§§ 207–210: The other soldiers die as martyrs on day 20 of the month Pashons (15 May).

§§ 210–223: Phoibammon, however, is not burning to death in the furnace, but singing praises to God instead, asking for his help. Gabriel comes down and enters the furnace, illuminating the bath and shaking it to its foundation. Gabriel encourages the saint, promises him the crown of martyrdom, but announces that he still has to battle for four more days. The dux hearing about this, is impressed, but convinced he will gain control over the saint.

§§ 224–244: A magician named Alexander is summoned by the dux to combat the saint by invoking the forces of the imperial gods. The magician tries to gain control of the saint by a magic potion, but the saint sent a demon onto him in return. At the instigation of the demon, the magician then professes the God of Apa Phoibammon, enraging the dux even further.

§§ 245–264: The dux imprisoned the magician and tortured the saint by putting a column drum on his chest. The saint rose by the power of Christ and the drum fell off him and broke into pieces. One of the pieces hit the foot of the dux who suffered greatly leading to even more tortures for the saint. A statue of Apollo which is brought in order to prevent further magic performed by the saint, falls to the ground. The dux has the saint’s eyes poked out, but Gabriel descends to heal the saint and restore his vision. In return, Gabriel blinds the dux, who begs for Phoibammon’s help. The saint demands that the dux prays to God of Phoibammon first, and only then is his sight restored. Once this is done, the dux claims that it was Apollo who restored his sight and demands that the saint sacrifices to him. The saint instead kicks the statue of Apollo. More tortures follow, until the dux finally decides to sentence the saint to death by decapitation.

§§ 265–273: Phoibammon curses the dux and predicts his early death, as well as the imminent death of his wife and children through a boat accident. He also predicts the death of his own parents, who, searching for his body, will be bitten by a snake. He then goes on to curse his torturers and the soldiers assigned to behead him. They lead him away and he asks them for some privacy and urges the crowed to leave him alone.

§§ 274–286: The saint’s final prayer and the archangel’s promise: Phoibammon prays to Christ and asks for Michael and Gabriel to be sent to watch over his body until the day of resurrection. Gabriel appears and ushers the crowd away to speak to Phoibammon in private about what he desires. The frightened crowd retreats and Gabriel tells the saint that Christ has sent him to bring his soul to the kingdom of he


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Phoibammon, soldier and martyr of Preht (ob. c. 304) : S00080 Orsunouphios and Ischerion, soldiers and martyrs from the garrison near Esna : S01200 Orsunouphios and Ischerion, soldiers and martyrs from the garrison near Esna : S01200 Belphios, Or

Saint Name in Source

ⲁⲡⲁ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ⲟⲣⲥⲩⲛⲟⲩⲫⲓⲟⲥ ⲉⲓⲥⲭⲏⲣⲓⲟⲛ ⲃⲉⲗⲫⲓⲟⲥ ϩⲟⲣⲓⲅⲉ ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ

Type of Evidence

Literary - Hagiographical - Accounts of martyrdom Late antique original manuscripts - Parchment codex


  • Coptic

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Egypt and Cyrenaica Egypt and Cyrenaica Egypt and Cyrenaica

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Assiut Hamouli

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Assiut Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis Hamouli Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis

Cult activities - Places

Martyr shrine (martyrion, bet sāhedwātā, etc.)

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle during lifetime Miracles experienced by the saint Punishing miracle Power over elements (fire, earthquakes, floods, weather) Power over objects Healing diseases and disabilities Changing abilities and properties of the body Apparition, vision, dream, revelation Other miracles with demons and demonic creatures

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Soldiers Officials Crowds Pagans Angels


Complete manuscript, parchment codex Pierpont Morgan M582, fol. 1r–20v, from the monastery of the Archangel Michael in the Fayum, near Hamouli, produced between AD 822 and 913/4. Further fragments of this text are known from papyrus leaves: British Library Or 6012, part of a single papyrus leaf; British Library Or 7561, ff. 67–69, three fragmentary pages of a papyrus codex; British Library Or 7561, ff. 114, 116 & 117, three papyrus fragments; and Bayerische Landesbibliothek (Munich), Handschrift koptisch 3, ff. 52–58, seven fragmentary papyrus leaves. The account of the saint's martyrdom is followed in the same codex by a large collection of his miracles, see §E00240.


Spanel, D.B.,, "Phoibammon of Preht, Martyr," The Coptic Encyclopedia, vol. 6. Ed. A. S. Atiya (New Yorks, 1991), 1963–1965. Uljas,, S., “The Martyrdom of St Phoibamon of Preht, Pierpont Morgan Codex M 582, ff. 1r–20v," in: M. Müller and S. Uljas (eds.), Of Martyrs and Archangels, vol. I, (forthcoming). For a full range of the documentary evidence on Phoibammon: Papaconstantinou, A., Le culte des saints en Égypte des Byzantins aux Abbassides (Paris: CNRS, 2001), 204–214.

Continued Description

aven and safeguard and accompany his body to its resting place. ⲁⲩⲱ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ϯⲛⲁⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲛϩⲛϭⲟⲙ ϩⲙ ⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ · ϯⲛⲁⲧⲣⲉ ϩⲛⲙⲟⲉⲓⲛ ⲙⲛ ϩⲛϣⲡⲏⲣⲉ ϣⲱⲡⲉ ϩⲛ ⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ · ⲛⲣⲉϥϫⲓⲟⲩⲉ · ⲙⲛ ⲛⲣⲉϥⲱⲣⲕ ⲛⲛⲟⲩϫ · ϩⲓ ⲡⲟⲣⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲓⲙ · ϩⲓ ⲙⲛⲧⲙⲁⲧⲟ ⲛϩⲟⲩⲟ ⲉⲩϣⲁⲛⲉⲓ ⲉⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲛⲥⲉϫⲓ ϭⲟⲗ ϯⲛⲁⲧⲣⲉ ⲧⲥⲏⲃⲉ ⲟⲩⲱⲙ ⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩ ϩⲓⲧⲛ ⲧϭⲟⲙ ⲛⲓⲥ ⲡⲉⲭⲥ · ⲁⲩⲱ ⲡⲉⲟ⟨ⲟ⟩ⲩ ⲙⲡⲡⲁⲛⲧⲱⲕⲣⲁⲧⲱⲣ ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁⲉⲣϩⲁⲃⲥ ⲉⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ · ⲅⲉⲛⲟⲥ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲛⲣⲱⲙⲉ ϩⲓ ⲗⲁⲟⲥ · ϩⲓ ⲧⲩⲣⲁⲛⲟⲥ ϯⲛⲁⲧⲣⲉⲩⲉⲓ ⲛⲥⲉⲟⲩⲱϣⲧ ϩⲙ ⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ · ⲙⲛ ⲛϩⲓⲥⲉ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲛⲧⲁⲕϣⲟⲡⲟⲩ · ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲗⲁⲟⲥ ⲙⲛ ⲛⲣⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲁⲥⲱⲧⲙ ⲉⲛⲉϭⲟⲙ ⲙⲛ ⲛⲉϣⲡⲏⲣⲉ ⲉⲧⲛⲁϣⲱⲡⲉ ϩⲙ ⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲛⲥⲉⲣϣⲡⲏⲣⲉ · ⲡⲉⲓⲙⲁ ⲅⲁⲣ ⲉⲧⲕⲁϩⲉⲣⲁⲧⲕ ⲛϩⲏⲧϥ ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩ ⲙⲡⲁⲧⲉ ⲡⲉϥⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓϣ ϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲉⲧⲣⲉϥⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ · ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲙⲛⲛⲥⲁ ⲕⲉⲕⲟⲩ ⲛⲟⲩⲟⲉⲓϣ ϥⲛⲁⲟⲩⲱⲛϩ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲧⲛ ⲧϭⲟⲙ ⲙⲡⲁϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲓⲥ ⲡⲉⲭⲥ · ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲇⲉ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉⲧⲛⲁⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲛⲟⲩⲡⲣⲟⲥⲫⲟⲣⲁ · ⲏ ϩⲛⲇⲟⲣⲟⲛ ⲉⲧⲣⲉⲩⲛⲧⲟⲩ ⲉⲡⲉⲕⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲛⲥⲉⲁⲙⲉⲗ ϯⲛⲁⲧⲣⲉ ⲧⲥⲏⲃⲉ ⲟⲩⲱⲙ ⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩ · ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲡⲉⲧⲛⲁⲉⲣⲏⲧ ⲙⲁⲣⲉϥϫⲱⲕ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲡⲉϥϩⲱⲃ · ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩ ϭⲉ ⲫⲟⲓⲃⲁⲙⲱⲛ ϯⲙⲡⲉⲕⲟⲩⲟ ⲉⲧⲟⲓⲕⲟⲛⲟⲙⲓⲁ ⲉⲧⲕⲏ ⲛⲁⲕ ⲉϩⲣⲁ ⲛⲅϫⲟⲕⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ · ⲛⲅϫⲓ ⲙⲡⲉⲕⲗⲟⲙ ⲛⲧⲁⲩⲥⲃⲧⲱⲧϥ ⲛⲁⲕ ⲛⲅϫⲱⲕ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ⲙⲡⲉⲕⲁⲅⲱⲛ · ⲙⲙⲟⲛ ⲉⲓⲥ ϣⲟⲙⲛⲧ ⲛⲁⲅⲅⲉⲗⲟⲥ ⲥⲃⲧⲱⲧ ⲉⲁⲥⲡⲁⲍⲉ ⲙⲙⲟⲕ (§§ 282–286)‘I shall reveal miracles at your shrine (topos). I shall let symbols and wonders take place at your shrine. Thieves and liars, any fornicator and avaricious person, if they come to your shrine and lie, I will let the sword gnaw at them through the power of Jesus Christ. It is the glory of the Almighty that will shelter your shrine. Any individual, common people and rulers, I will let them come and worship at your shrine and (worship) all the sufferings you have borne. Common people and kings will hear the miracles and wonders which will take place at your shrine, and they will be amazed. Since this spot, where you are standing now, its time has not yet come to let it be known. But after a little more time, it will be revealed through the power of my Lord, Jesus Christ. Anyone then, who will promise an offering or gifts to be brought to your shrine, and will be negligent (of that promise), I will let the sword gnaw at them. But whoever will make a vow, let them fulfil it!Now then, Phoibamon, move on to the arrangement laid out for you, complete it, receive the crown, which has been prepared for you, and complete your contest. Verily, behold, three angels are ready to greet you.’ §§ 287–293: Phoibammon then asks the crowd for someone to inform his pious sister to arrange for his body to be taken back to their home town and to be given a proper burial there.ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩ ϭⲉ ⲧⲁⲥⲱⲛⲉ ⲥⲡⲟⲩⲇⲍⲉ ⲉⲡⲁⲥⲱⲙⲁ ⲛⲧⲉϯ ⲉⲣⲟϥ ⲛⲟⲩⲕⲁⲥⲉ ⲕⲁⲧⲁ ⲡⲉϥⲉⲙⲡϣⲁ ⲛⲧⲉϫⲓⲧϥ ⲉⲡⲉⲛⲏ · ⲛⲧⲉⲧⲱⲙⲥ ⲙⲙⲟϥ ϩⲛ ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲣⲏⲛⲏ · ϯϣⲓⲛⲉ ⲉⲣⲟ ⲧⲟⲛⲟⲩ ⲧⲁⲥⲱⲛⲉ · ⲧⲁⲙⲛⲧⲥⲟⲛ ⲧⲏⲣⲥ ⲙⲡⲉⲣⲣⲡⲉⲥⲱⲃϣ · ⲁⲩⲱ ⲁⲛⲟⲕ ϩⲱ ⲛϯⲛⲁⲣⲡⲟⲩⲱⲃϣ ⲁⲛ ·ⲉⲓϣⲗⲏⲗ ⲉϫⲱ ϩⲙ ⲡⲙⲁ ⲉⲧⲓⲛⲁⲃⲱⲕ ⲉⲣⲟϥ · ⲟⲩⲙⲟⲛⲟⲛ ϫⲉ ⲛⲧⲟ ⲙⲁⲩⲁⲁⲧⲉ ⲁⲗⲗⲁ ⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲉⲧⲛⲏⲩ ⲉⲣⲁⲧϥ ⲙⲡⲁⲧⲟⲡⲟⲥ (§§ 290–291).‘Now, my sister, take care of my body, and give it a burial as it deserves; take it to our home, and bury it in peace. I greet you sincerely, my sister. Do not forget my entire brotherhood, and I myself shall not forget you. At the place where I will be going, I shall pray for you, though not for you alone, but for anyone who comes to my (burial) shrine.’ He then turns to his executioners and urges them to follow through with their duty. They behead him on the 1st day of Pauni (26 May); Christ and angels descend and take up his soul in glory.Text: S. Uljas. Summary and translation: G. Schenke.

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