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E01925: Coptic Homily on the Resurrection and the *Apostles (S00084) attributed to John Chrysostom (S00779), remarking on the higher nature of the Apostles over martyrs (S01122), because the latter only suffered in one place, while the former did so in multiple places; 9th century or earlier.

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posted on 17.10.2016, 00:00 by Bryan
M595, folia 51v–67v

ⲟⲩⲉⲝⲏⲅⲏⲥⲓⲥ ⲉⲁϥⲧⲁⲩⲟⲥ ⲛϭⲓ ⲡⲙⲁⲕⲁⲣⲓⲟⲥ ⲓⲱϩⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲁⲣⲭⲏⲉⲡⲓⲥⲕⲟⲡⲟⲥ ⲛⲕⲟⲥⲧⲁⲛⲧⲓⲛⲟⲩⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲉⲧⲃⲉ ⲡϣⲁ ⲛⲧⲁⲛⲁⲥⲧⲁⲥⲓⲥ
ⲙⲡⲉⲛϫⲟⲉⲓⲥ ⲓⲥ ⲡⲉⲭⲥ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲧⲙⲧⲣⲉⲛⲣ ϩⲏⲃⲉ ⲉϫⲛ ⲛⲉⲧⲏⲛⲧⲁⲛ ⲛⲧⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩ ϩⲙ ⲡⲉϩⲟⲟⲩ ⲛⲧⲕⲩⲣⲓⲁⲕⲏ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲉⲧⲣⲉ ⲟⲩⲟ(ⲛ) ⲛⲓⲙ ϯⲉⲟⲟⲩ ⲛⲕⲩⲣⲓⲁⲕⲏ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲟⲛ ⲁϥϣⲁϫⲉ ⲉⲧⲃⲉ ⲛⲉⲛⲉⲓⲟⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲟⲥ ϩⲛ ⲟⲩⲉⲓⲣⲏⲛⲏ ⲛⲧⲉ ⲡⲛⲟⲩⲧⲉ ϩⲁⲙⲏⲛ

‘A homily which the blessed John archbishop of Constantinople pronounced about the feast day of the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, lest we mourn about our family members who have died on the holy Sunday and so that everyone might honour all holy Sundays. And he also spoke about our holy fathers the apostles. In God’s peace. Amen.’

The text makes the following points:

§§ 1–2: Let us rejoice about today’s feast of Easter.
§§ 3–6: Suffering is rewarded with relief today.
§§ 7–16: Prophecies of David in the Psalms concerning Jesus’ life, death, and Resurrection. Comparison with the New Testament (§ 16). John archbishop of Constantinople/John Chrysostom
§ 17: If the Lord had not been born, he would not have died for us.
§ 18: Christ speaks: “The good shepherd gives his life for the sheep.”
§§ 19–23: Let us rejoice because all has been changed today.
§§ 24–33: Mourning about the dead is improper today. Let us follow the example of Eutychus (§§ 29–32).
§§ 34–39: Adam and his children rejoice today because the Lord has rescued them.
§§ 40–54: Recapitulation of the events following Jesus’ death and Resurrection.
§§ 55–58: Let us praise Christ the Saviour who has risen.
§§ 59–61: Christ’s parting words to his apostles.
§ 62: Christ’s Ascension.
§§ 63– 66: On the thieves who were crucified with Christ.
§§ 67–70: Let us worship Christ, receive his gift, and in turn feed the poor.
§§ 71–74: Of the three feasts, Easter, Ascension Day (including Pentecost), and Epiphany, Easter is the most important.
§ 75: Christ’s mercy is boundless.
§§ 76–85: On the supreme honour of the apostles.

§§ 77–78:

ⲁϣ ⲅⲁⲣ ⲙⲙⲁⲣⲧⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲡⲉⲧⲧⲛⲧⲱⲛ ⲉⲛⲁⲓ ⲙⲙⲁⲣⲧⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲅⲁⲣ ⲟⲩⲉⲡⲁⲣⲭⲓⲁ ⲛⲟⲩⲱⲧ ⲧⲉⲛⲧⲁⲩϫⲓ ⲉⲝⲏⲧⲏⲥⲓⲥ ϩⲓⲱⲱⲥ ⲛⲁⲓ ⲇⲉ ϩⲱⲟⲩ ϩⲁϩ
ⲙⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ϩⲓ ϯⲙⲉ ⲉⲟⲩⲉⲧ ⲧⲉⲝⲏⲧⲏⲥⲓⲥ ⲛⲧⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲧⲡⲟⲗⲓⲥ ⲏ ⲡϯⲙⲉ ⲡϯⲙⲉ ⲡϩⲓⲥⲉ ⲛⲛⲉϩⲓⲟⲟⲩⲉ ⲡⲉϩⲕⲟ ⲙⲛ ⲡⲓⲃⲉ ⲛⲉⲝⲏⲧⲏⲥⲓⲥ ⲛⲧⲙⲉⲛⲧϣⲙⲙⲟ ⲛⲉϣⲧⲉⲕⲱⲟⲩ ⲑⲟⲧⲉ ⲛⲑⲁⲗⲁⲥⲥⲁ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲡⲗⲉⲁ ⲛϩⲏⲧⲥ ⲉⲓⲛⲁϫⲉ ⲟⲩ ⲧⲁⲕⲁ ⲟⲩ
ⲁⲗⲏⲑⲱⲥ ⲁⲩϣⲡ ϩⲓⲥⲉ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲉ ⲉⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲁⲩϫⲓ ⲉⲟⲟⲩ ⲟⲛ ⲉϩⲟⲩⲉ ⲉⲛⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲧⲏⲣⲟⲩ ⲁⲩϫⲓ ⲛⲧⲡⲟⲗⲩⲧⲓⲁ ⲙⲛ ⲧⲁⲥⲕⲏⲥⲓⲥ ⲛⲙⲙⲟⲛⲁⲭⲟ̣ⲥ ⲉⲃⲟⲗ ϩⲱⲟⲩ ϫⲉ ⲁⲩⲕⲱ ⲛⲥⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲛⲉⲩϩⲓⲟⲙⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲛⲉⲩϣⲏⲣⲉ ⲁⲩⲃⲓ ⲙⲡⲉⲩⲥⲧⲁⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲟⲩⲁϩⲟⲩ ⲛⲥⲁ ⲡⲥⲱⲧⲏⲣ ⲁⲩϣⲱⲡⲉ ⲛϩⲏⲕⲉ ⲙⲛ
ⲛϩⲏⲕⲉ ϣⲁⲛⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲩ ⲛⲣⲙⲙⲁⲟ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲥⲟⲫⲟⲥ ⲙⲛ ⲛⲥⲟⲫⲟⲥ ⲁⲩϣⲱⲛⲉ ⲙⲛ ⲛⲉⲧϣⲱⲛⲉ ⲁⲩⲃⲓ ϩⲁ ⲛⲃⲁⲣ̣ⲟⲥ ⲛⲟⲩⲟⲛ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲁⲩϣⲡ ϩⲓⲥⲉ ϩⲱⲥ ⲙⲁⲣⲧⲩⲣⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲧⲁϣⲉⲟⲉⲓϣ ϩⲱⲥ ⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲟⲥ ⲁⲩⲣϩⲟⲙⲟⲗⲟⲅⲉⲓⲧⲏⲥ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲛⲥⲁϩ ⲛⲉⲝⲏⲅⲏⲧⲏⲥ ϩⲙ ⲙⲁ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲁⲩⲱ ⲁⲛⲉⲩϣⲁϫⲉ ⲡⲱϩ ϣⲁ
ⲛⲉⲕⲣⲱⲟⲩ ⲛⲧⲟⲓⲕⲟⲩⲙⲉⲛⲏ ⲉⲩⲥⲱϣ ⲙⲙⲟⲟⲩ ⲉⲩϯⲕⲗⲯ ⲉϫⲱⲟⲩ ⲉⲩϫⲓ ⲟⲩⲁ ⲉⲣⲟⲟⲩ ⲉⲩⲛⲟϭⲛⲉϭ ⲙⲙⲟⲟⲩ ⲛⲁⲓ ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩ ⲉⲩⲥⲧⲱⲗⲓⲍⲉ
ⲙⲙⲟⲟⲩ ϩⲛ ⲉⲟⲟⲩ ⲛⲓⲙ ⲛⲧⲉ ⲧⲡⲉ ⲉⲡⲙⲁ ⲛⲛⲉϩⲓⲥⲉ ⲛⲧⲁⲩϣⲟⲡⲟⲩ

‘Indeed, which martyr can be compared with them (the Apostles)? For the martyrs were tested only in a single district while they, on their part, were tested in many cities and villages, the test being different from city to city and from village to village: the hardships of the roads, hunger thirst, the trials of being a stranger, the prisons, the fear of the sea on which they sailed. What will I mention, what omit?
Truly, they suffered more than anyone and were also glorified more than all the saints. They assumed the moral conduct and the ascetic practice of the monks, since they had also left their wives and children behind them. They took their cross and followed the Saviour. They became poor with the poor in order to become rich, and wise with the wise. They were sick together with the sick. They took up everyone’s burden. They suffered like martyrs and preached like apostles. They were confessors and teachers of exegesis everywhere. Their sayings have reached to the limits of the inhabited world. Whereas they were despised and harassed, slandered and mocked, they are now adorned with every honour of heaven in return for the suffering they have received.’


§§ 86–87: Behold Christ sitting on his throne and praise him.
§§ 88–89: Be moderate in eating and drinking.
§ 90: Epilogue.

Summary, text and translation: Zlatko Plese.

History

Evidence ID

E01925

Saint Name

Apostles (unspecified) : S00084 Martyrs, unnamed or name lost : S00060

Saint Name in Source

ⲉⲛⲉⲓⲟⲧⲉ ⲉⲧⲟⲩⲁⲁⲃ ⲛⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲟⲥ ⲙⲙⲁⲣⲧⲩⲣⲟⲥ

Type of Evidence

Literary - Sermons/Homilies

Language

Coptic

Evidence not before

855

Evidence not after

855

Activity not before

370

Activity not after

855

Place of Evidence - Region

Egypt and Cyrenaica

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Hamouli

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Hamouli Hermopolis ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Ashmunein Hermopolis

Major author/Major anonymous work

John archbishop of Constantinople/John Chrysostom

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Sermon/homily

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Composing and translating saint-related texts

Source

M595, folia 51v–67v, forms part of a parchment codex found together with many other codices at the site of the monastery of St Michael near Hamuli in the Fayum. Today, these codices are housed at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. The colophon at the end of codex M595 gives the date of the manuscript's production as 4 April AD 855. There is no way of dating the text, other than to say that it cannot be later than this date.

Discussion

The multitude and severity of suffering seems to allow for a hierarchy of sanctity.

Bibliography

Text and Translation: Plese, Z., "Homily on the Resurrection and the Apostles (M595, ff. 51v–67v), attributed to John Chrysostom," in: L. Depuydt (ed.), Homiletica from the Pierpont Morgan Library: Seven Coptic Homilies Attributed to Basil the Great, John Chrysostom, and Euodius of Rome, CSCO 524: Copt. 43, pp. 56–76 (text) and CSCO 525: Copt. 44, pp. 57–80 (translation) (Louvain, 1991).

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