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E01406: The early 5th c. Syriac Martyrology commemorates on 7 January the martyrdom of *Polyeuktos (soldier and martyr of Melitene, S00325), *Qnōdīnōs (martyr of Heracleia, S00951), and *Loukianos (martyr of Nicomedia, S00151).

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posted on 2016-05-30, 00:00 authored by Bryan
ܘܒܫܒܥܬܐ ܒܗ ܒܝܪܚܐ ܒܡܠܝܛܝܢܐ ܦܘܠܘܐܘܩܝܛܐ. ܘܒܗ ܒܝܘܡܐ ܒܗܪܩܠܝܐ ܡܕܝܢܬܐ ܒܬܪܩܐ ܩܢܘܕܝܢܘܤ ܡܘܕܝܢܐ. ܘܒܢܘܩܘܡܕܝܐ ܠܘܩܝܢܘܤ ܩܫܝܫܐ.

'And on the seventh (day) of the month – at Melitene, Polyeuktos; and on this day – in the city of Heracleia in Thrace, the martyr Knōdīnōs; and at Nicomedia, the presbyter Loukianos.'

Text: Nau 1912, pp. 11-12. Translation: Sergey Minov

History

Evidence ID

E01406

Saint Name

Polyeuktos, soldier and martyr of Melitene, ob. 250/260 : S00325 Loukianos, Antiochene priest martyred in Nicomedia, ob. 310/312 : S00151 Qnōdīnōs, martyr in Heracleia : S00951

Saint Name in Source

ܦܘܠܘܐܘܩܝܛܐ ܠܘܩܝܢܘܤ ܩܢܘܕܝܢܘܤ

Type of Evidence

Liturgical texts - Calendars and martyrologies

Language

  • Syriac

Evidence not before

411

Evidence not after

412

Activity not before

360

Activity not after

411

Place of Evidence - Region

Mesopotamia

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Edessa

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Edessa Edessa Edessa Ἔδεσσα Edessa

Major author/Major anonymous work

Syriac Martyrology of 411

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Source

The Syriac Martyrology of the year 411 is the earliest liturgical calendar preserved in Syriac. It appears in the manuscript BL Add. 12150. The manuscript's colophon relates that it was produced in the city of Edessa in the year 411. Composed during the last decades of the fourth or the first decade of the fifth century, the Martyrology is divided into two sections, a longer section devoted to the Christian martyrs of the Roman empire, and a shorter one, devoted to Christians executed in the Sasanian empire. The section on the Roman empire is derived from a lost Greek martyrology. For more information, see E00465. Syriac text: Wright 1865-1866; Nau 1912, pp. 11-26; Brock and van Rompay 2014, pp. 389-392; English translation: Wright 1865-1866, pp. 423-432; French translation: Nau 1912, pp. 11-26; German translation: Lietzmann 1903, pp. 9-16; Latin translation: Mariani 1956. For general information, see Taylor 2012, pp. 80-81; Schäferdiek 2005.

Discussion

The Martyrology provides the earliest evidence for the liturgical commemoration of the martyrs Polyeuktos, Qnōdīnōs and Loukianos among Syriac-speaking Christians. The exact identity of the second martyr, whose name in Syriac is 'Qnōdīnōs,' is not quite certain. Whereas some scholars identify him as 'Claudianus' (Wright 1865, p. 423), others opt for 'Iannouarinos' (Nau 1912, p. 12, n. 3).

Bibliography

Main editions and translations: Brock, S.P., and van Rompay, L., Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts and Fragments in the Library of Deir al-Surian, Wadi al-Natrun (Egypt) (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 227; Leuven: Peeters, 2014). Lietzmann, H., Die drei ältesten Martyrologien (Kleine Texte für Theologische Vorlesungen und Übungen 2; Bonn: A. Marcus und E. Weber, 1903). Mariani, B., Breviarium syriacum seu martyrologium syriacum saec. IV (Rerum ecclesiasticarum documenta, Series minor: Subsidia studiorum 3; Roma: Herder, 1956). Nau, F., Martyrologes et ménologes orientaux, I–XIII. Un martyrologie et douze ménologes syriaques édités et traduits (Patrologia Orientalis 10.1 [46]; Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1912). Wright, W., “An Ancient Syriac Martyrology,” Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record NS VIII, 15 (1865), 45-56; 16 (1866), 423-432. Further reading: Schäferdiek, K., “Bemerkungen zum Martyrologium Syriacum,” Analecta Bollandiana 123:1 (2005), 5-22. Taylor, D.G.K., “Hagiographie et liturgie syriaque,” in: A. Binggeli (ed.), L’hagiographie syriaque (Études syriaques 9; Paris: Paul Geuthner, 2012), 77-112.

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    Evidence -  The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity

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