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E01031: A round terracotta disk with an inscription referring to *Raphael (the Archangel, S00481). Found at Anemourion (Isauria, southern Asia Minor). Probably late antique.

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posted on 2015-12-30, 00:00 authored by pnowakowski
A round terracotta mould with a Latin cross in the centre and an inscription, running around the edge, in mirror writing:

Εὐλογία τοῦ ἁγίου Ῥαφαήλ

'Blessing of Saint Raphael.'

Text: Russell 1982, 542-543.


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Raphaēl, the Archangel : S00481

Saint Name in Source


Type of Evidence

Inscriptions - Inscribed objects Images and objects - Lamps, ampullae and tokens Images and objects - Other portable objects (metalwork, ivory, etc.)


  • Greek

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Asia Minor

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc


Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Anemourion Nicomedia Νικομήδεια Nikomēdeia Izmit Πραίνετος Prainetos Nicomedia

Cult activities - Activities Accompanying Cult

  • Production and selling of eulogiai, tokens

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs


Cult Activities - Relics

Ampullae, eulogiai, tokens

Cult Activities - Cult Related Objects

Ampullae, flasks, etc.


James Russell plausibly argues that this was a mould designed for the production of amuletic discs, but it is also not unlikely that it was made to stamp bread (that it was a stamp, or mould, is suggested by the use of mirror-writing).


Edition: Hagel, St., Tomaschitz, K., (eds.), Repertorium der westkilikischen Inschriften (Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Denkschriften der philosophisch-historischen Klasse 265, Ergänzungsbände zu den Tituli Asiae Minoris 22, Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1998), no. Anm 46. Russell, J., "The evil eye in early Byzantine history. Archaeological evidence from Anemurium in Isauria", Jahrbuch der österreichsichen Byzantinistik 32 (1982), 542-543. Reference works: Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 39, 1425.

Usage metrics

    Evidence -  The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity