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E00545: Gregory of Tours, in his Glory of the Martyrs (47), tells of the martyrdom of *Saturninus (bishop and martyr of Toulouse, S00289), and of a translation of his relics from Toulouse (south-west Gaul) to an unnamed place; on the way the relics were sheltered for a night in a poor man's house near Brioude (central Gaul); warned in a vision that the place was now too sacred to live in, and then suffering misfortune, the man eventually demolished his house and built a wooden oratory on the spot. Written in Latin in Tours (north-west Gaul), 580/594.

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posted on 2015-05-26, 00:00 authored by pnowakowski
Gregory of Tours, Glory of the Martyrs 47


'Saturninus assuredly a martyr, as it is said, was ordained by disciples of the apostles and sent to Toulouse' (Saturninus vero martyr, ut fertur, ab apostolorum discipulis ordinatus, in urbe Tolosacium est directus), where he was martyred by being dragged to his death by a savage bull. Some religious men were taking relics (reliquiae) of him to another region, and stopped for the night at the house of a poor man on the edge of Brioude. He placed the reliquary (capsa cum reliquiis) in his storeroom overnight, and gave it back to the travellers in the morning. The next night he was told in a vision to abandon the place, which had been sanctified by the relics of Saturninus (sanctificatus ... a pignoribus martyris Saturnini). He ignored the warning and fell on hard times - losing his wealth, and his wife falling ill. After a year of increasing troubles, he realised his sin, demolished his house, and built an 'oratory made of wooden planks' (oratorium ex ligneis formatum tabulis). He soon recovered all, indeed more than he had lost.

There follows another punishing miracle of Saturninus (see $E00546).

Text: Krusch 1969, 69-70. Summary: Bryan Ward-Perkins.


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Saturninus, bishop and martyr of Toulouse (Gaul), ob. 250/1 : S00289

Saint Name in Source


Type of Evidence

Literary - Hagiographical - Collections of miracles Literary - Hagiographical - Other saint-related texts


  • Latin

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region

Gaul and Frankish kingdoms

Place of Evidence - City, village, etc


Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Tours Tours Tours Toronica urbs Prisciniacensim vicus Pressigny Turonorum civitas Ceratensis vicus Céré

Major author/Major anonymous work

Gregory of Tours

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - dependent (chapel, baptistery, etc.)

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Construction of cult buildings

Cult activities - Rejection, Condemnation, Scepticism

Considerations about the succession of saints

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle after death Apparition, vision, dream, revelation Punishing miracle

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Ecclesiastics - monks/nuns/hermits Peasants

Cult Activities - Relics

Unspecified relic Transfer, translation and deposition of relics Transfer/presence of relics from distant countries Reliquary – institutionally owned


Gregory, bishop of Tours from 573 until his death (probably in 594), was the most prolific hagiographer of all Late Antiquity. He wrote four books on the miracles of Martin of Tours, one on those of Julian of Brioude, and two on the miracles of other saints (the Glory of the Martyrs and Glory of the Confessors), as well as a collection of twenty short Lives of sixth-century Gallic saints (the Life of the Fathers). He also included a mass of material on saints in his long and detailed Histories, and produced two independent short works: a Latin version of the Acts of Andrew and a Latin translation of the story of The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. Internal references to datable events and to other work by Gregory, suggest that he wrote the greater part of his Glory of the Martyrs between 585 and 588, though there is one chapter (ch. 82), long before the end of the book, that describes an event that is most readily dated to 590. It is in fact likely that Gregory was collecting and recording these stories throughout his life, and, fortunately for our purposes, precise dating is not of great importance, since his views on the role of saints and the correct ways to venerate them do not seem to have changed during his writing life. The work was probably never fully completed and polished: the version we have closes with four very disparate chapters, including one (105) about the divine punishment of an avaricious woman that bears no obvious connection to the overall theme of the book. (For discussions of the dating, see Van Dam 2004, xi-xii; Shaw 2015, 104-105, 111.) In his preface, Gregory states that his aim in the work is 'to publicise some of the miracles of the saints that have until now been hidden' (aliqua de sanctorum miraculis, quae actenus latuerunt, pandere), so, as in his Glory of the Confessors, his focus is not on the lives of the saints, nor on the details of their martyrdoms, but on miracles they have effected, particularly through their relics. Miracles are recorded from many places; but unsurprisingly the largest number is from Gaul. The book opens, rather curiously, with a sizeable number of miracles and relics of Jesus and his mother Mary, neither of them conventional 'martyrs'. The explanation for this must be that Gregory's interest was really much more in relics and miracles in general than in martyrs specifically. Many of the Gallic saints he included are somewhat obscure, but outside Gaul he concentrates for the most part on major saints; towards the end of the book, however, he slips in a couple of lesser Syrian saints, probably because they had interesting specialisms: Phokas and Domitios, with, respectively, particular skills at curing snake bites and sciatica. In the case of the non-Gallic saints, it is not always clear whether they were attracting active cult in Gaul – Phokas and Domitios, for instance, almost certainly didn't. It is only when Gregory tells us of a church dedication or relic that we can be certain that the saint concerned had serious cult in Gaul: in the case of the martyrs of Rome, for instance, this is true of Clement and Laurence, but not of Chrysanthus and Daria, Pancratius, and John I. Although each section contains extraneous material, the work can be broken down very roughly into the following sections:    *Chapters 1-7: Miracles and relics of Jesus (with some of Mary), including three chapters (5-7) on relics of the Passion. (For the most part, these chapters are not covered in our database.)    *Chapters 8-19: Miracles and relics of Mary and John the Baptist.    *Chapters 20-25: Miraculous images of Jesus, and a spring associated with Easter.    *Chapters 23-34: Miracles and relics of the Apostles and Stephen (i.e. New Testament saints).    *Chapters 35-41: Miracles and relics of the post-apostolic martyrs of Rome.    *Chapters 42-46: And of northern Italy.    *Chapters 47-77: And of Gaul (in no obvious order, except that the first three chapters are occupied by early martyrs). This is the longest section of the book.    *Chapters 78-87: Very miscellaneous, with only marginal references to saints: three anti-Arian stories (79-81); two stories regarding relics of Gregory's (82-83); four stories of the punishment of impure people (84-87).    *Chapters 88-102: Miracles and relics of martyrs of Spain, Africa (just one, Cyprian of Carthage), and the East, in that order.    *Chapters 103-106: Miscellaneous. But tight structuring was never a great concern of Gregory's, so within this broad framework, he often wanders off his main theme. For instance, a clutch of miracle stories relating to John the Baptist (chs. 11-13) lead Gregory into a general discussion of the River Jordan (ch. 16), which then leads him to discuss some springs near Jericho (ch. 17), linked to the preceding chapter by the common theme of 'miraculous waters in the Holy Land', but with no connection to any martyr. Similarly, a miracle story involving relics of St Andrew and the punishment of an Arian count (ch. 78) leads Gregory into three stories against Arians with no relation to saints. These digressions did not bother Gregory and are part of the charm of his work. Gregory very seldom tells us about his sources, which for the most part were certainly oral; he had a wide circle of acquaintances within the Gallic church, and also met and collected stories from travellers from abroad, including (if the source is to be believed) a man who had travelled to India (ch. 31). But Gregory also used a range of written texts, including Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History (chs. 20 and 48), the poems of Prudentius, Paulinus of Nola, and Venantius Fortunatus, and a substantial number of Martyrdoms (Van Dam 2004, xiv-xvi). Because many of his stories are set abroad, Glory of the Martyrs is less informative about cult practices than Glory of the Confessors, with its very local and very Gallic focus, but it is still a gold-mine of information. To take just two examples: the story of Benignus of Dijon is a remarkably rich and detailed account of the discovery and enhancement of a previously unknown martyr (ch. 50), while that of Patroclus of Troyes shows the importance of a written Martyrdom, and the degree of scepticism that might greet a new one (ch. 63). There is a good general discussion of Glory of the Martyrs in Van Dam 2004, ix-xxiii, and of Gregory's hagiography more widely in Shaw 2015. (Bryan Ward-Perkins)


For the overview of the Glory of the Martyrs see E00367. Gregory's statement that Saturninus was ordained 'by disciples of the apostles' (ab apostolorum discipulis) suggests a very early date for his mission to Toulouse, which is also suggested by his placing of this chapter on Saturninus at the very beginning of the section of Glory of the Martyrs that he dedicated to the martyrs of Gaul, just in front of a chapter on the second-century Martyrs of Lyon (ch.48). This early dating runs counter to what Gregory wrote in Histories 1.30 (E01530), where he dated the sending of Saturninus to Gaul (along with six other bishops) to the reign of the emperor Decius (AD 249-251), which is also the chronology given in a text that Gregory knew, the Martyrdom of Saturninus Bishop of Toulouse (E05623). Perhaps, between the writing of Histories 1.30 and this chapter in Glory of the Martyrs (which is probably later), Gregory had heard new claims regarding the origins of the church of Toulouse and the dating of Saturninus' life. Interestingly, the phrase that Gregory uses to describe the mission of Saturninus - ab apostolorum discipulis ordinatus, in urbe Tolosacium est directus - is very similar to a phrase he uses in Glory of the Confessors 79 (E02711) to describe the mission of *Ursinus (first bishop of Bourges, S01294) - qui a discipulis apostolorum episcopus ordinatus in Galliis distinatus est; just possibly, Gregory's source was the same for the early missions of both Saturninus and Ursinus. Gregory presumably knew this story of relics of Saturninus in the region of Brioude through his family's close connections with the shrine of Julian at Brioude. It provides interesting evidence of a very humble privately built wooden oratory.


Edition: Krusch, B., Liber in gloria martyrum, in: Gregorii Turonensis Opera. 2: Miracula et opera minora (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum 1.2; 2nd ed.; Hannover, 1969). Translation: Van Dam, R., Gregory of Tours, Glory of the Martyrs (Translated Texts for Historians 4; 2nd ed., Liverpool, 2004). Further reading: Shaw, R., "Chronology, Composition, and Authorial Conception in the Miracula", in: A.C. Murray (ed.), A Companion to Gregory of Tours (Leiden-Boston 2015), 102-140.

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