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E00095: John Chrysostom delivers in Greek his homily On *Babylas (bishop and martyr of Antioch, S00061), during the saint’s festival in Antioch (Syria). He recounts the miraculous destruction of Apollo’s temple at Daphne, after the removal of the saint’s remains, and how Bishop *Meletios (S01192) built a new shrine for the martyr, and was buried next to him. Written in Antioch, in the late 380s or 390s.

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posted on 2014-10-25, 00:00 authored by erizos
John Chrysostom, On Babylas (CPG 4348; BHG 207)

1. Although he had intended to finish an earlier sermon, Chrysostom postpones that subject in order to talk about Babylas, whose feast it is.

2. Ὅπως μὲν οὖν τῆς Ἐκκλησίας προέστη τῆς παρ’ ἡμῖν, καὶ τὴν ἱερὰν ταύτην διέσωσε ναῦν, ἐν χειμῶνι, καὶ κλύδωνι, καὶ κύμασι, καὶ ὅσην πρὸς βασιλέα παῤῥησίαν ἐπεδείξατο, καὶ πῶς τὴν ψυχὴν ἔθηκεν ὑπὲρ τῶν προβάτων, καὶ τὴν μακαρίαν ἐκείνην ἐδέξατο σφαγήν· ταῦτα, καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα, τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις τῶν διδασκάλων καὶ τῷ κοινῷ πατρὶ ἡμῶν ἀφήσομεν εἰπεῖν. Τὰ γὰρ ἀρχαιότερα τῶν πραγμάτων οἱ γεγηρακότες ὑμῖν δύνανται διηγεῖσθαι καλῶς· ὅσα δὲ νεωστὶ γέγονε, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς ἡλικίας τῆς ἡμετέρας, ταῦτα ὁ νέος ἐγὼ πρὸς ὑμᾶς διηγήσομαι, τὰ μετὰ τελευτὴν λέγω, τὰ μετὰ τὴν ταφὴν τοῦ μάρτυρος, τὰ ἡνίκα ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ διέτριβε. Καὶ οἶδα μὲν, ὅτι γελάσονται τὴν ὑπόσχεσιν ἡμῶν Ἕλληνες, εἰ μετὰ τελευτὴν καὶ ταφὴν τὰ τοῦ ταφέντος καὶ διαλυθέντος εἰς κόνιν ὑπισχνούμεθα λέγειν ἀνδραγαθήματα· οὐ μὴν διὰ τοῦτο σιγήσομεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ δι’ αὐτὸ τοῦτο μάλιστα ἐροῦμεν, ἵνα τὸ παράδοξον τοῦτο δείξαντες ἀληθῶς, τὸν γέλωτα εἰς τὴν ἐκείνων περιτρέψωμεν κεφαλήν. Ἀνθρώπου μὲν γὰρ ἁπλῶς οὐκ ἂν γένοιτο κατορθώματα μετὰ τελευτήν· μάρτυρος δὲ γένοιτ’ ἂν πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα, οὐχ ἵνα ἐκεῖνος λαμπρότερος γένηται (οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτῷ δεῖ τῆς παρὰ τῶν πολλῶν δόξης), ἀλλ’ ἵνα σὺ μάθῃς ὁ ἄπιστος, ὅτι θάνατος μαρτύρων οὐκ ἔστι θάνατος, ἀλλὰ ζωῆς βελτίονος ἀρχὴ καὶ πολιτείας πνευματικωτέρας προοίμια, καὶ μετάστασις ἀπὸ τῶν ἐλαττόνων πρὸς τὰ βελτίω. Μὴ γὰρ δὴ τοῦτο ἴδῃς, ὅτι γυμνὸν τοῦ μάρτυρος τὸ σῶμα πρόκειται τῆς ψυχικῆς ἐνεργείας ἔρημον· ἀλλ’ ἐκεῖνο σκόπει, ὅτι τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτῆς ἑτέρα παρακάθηται μείζων αὐτῷ δύναμις, ἡ τοῦ ἁγίου Πνεύματος χάρις, πᾶσιν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἀπολογουμένη, δι’ ὧν θαυματοποιεῖ. Εἰ γὰρ νεκροῖς σώμασι καὶ διαλυθεῖσιν εἰς κόνιν μείζονα τῶν ζώντων ἁπάντων δύναμιν ὁ Θεὸς ἐχαρίσατο, πολλῷ μᾶλλον αὐτοῖς ζωὴν χαριεῖται βελτίω τῆς προτέρας, καὶ μακαριωτέραν κατὰ τὸν τῶν στεφάνων καιρόν. [……]

‘… Now, how he led our church and preserved this holy ship through storm, rough waters, and waves, how much boldness he displayed before the emperor, and how he laid down his own life for his sheep [cf. John 10:11] and submitted to that blessed slaughter – these things and their like we shall leave to the more senior preachers and our common father to speak about. For the elderly are able to relate to us beautifully the events of the more remote past. As for the things that happened recently and at the time of our generation, I, the younger one, will relate to you. I mean those events that occurred after his death, after the martyr’s burial, when he dwelled at the suburb. I know, of course, that the Hellenes [pagans] will laugh at our promise, if we undertake to speak of feats after death and burial, performed by a person who has been buried and disintegrated into dust. Yet we shall not be silent, because of that, but shall rather speak precisely for that reason, in order to turn the laughter back in their face, by proving this paradox to be true. Indeed, there cannot be feats by a person after death, just like that. But by a martyr there can be several and great feats, not in order that he may become more famous (for he has no need of the glory of the multitude), but so that you, the unbeliever, may learn that a death of martyrs is no death at all, but rather the beginning of a better life, prelude to a more spiritual existence, and a passing from the lesser to a loftier state. Indeed, do not look at the fact that the martyr’s body lies before you bare and bereft of the energy of the soul. Rather consider this: that a greater power, other than the soul itself, abides with it – the grace of the Holy Spirit, which, through the miracles it performs, testifies to the resurrection before all. For, if God has granted bodies that are dead and disintegrated into dust a power greater than that of all the living, then even more will He grant them a life better and more blessed than their first one, at the time of the crowns … .’

3. Chrysostom recalls the events of the reign of Julian, who attempted to destroy the Christian faith.

4. All the emperor’s acts were doomed, while Christianity triumphed.

5-6. Julian employed oracles and sorcerers, and every place was full of demons. The result was the destruction of cities, famine, social unrest, and drought. Julian visited Daphne, attempting to receive an oracle from Apollo, but the demon instructed him to remove the dead from the area, because they supposedly prevented him from speaking. True defilement, however, does not lie with the bodies of the dead, but with the actions of the living.

7. The demon was, in fact, afraid of Babylas, and this was demonstrated by the fact that they removed only his body and none of the other burials. And Julian was afraid of the martyr too, since, if he had only detested the body, he could have destroyed the sarcophagus and the remains, but he did not dare do that.

8. Immediately when the body was removed, a thunderbolt struck and destroyed the temple of Apollo. And although Julian could have ordered the destruction of the martyr’s shrine (martyrion) and the restoration of the temple, he did neither, clearly out of fear.

9. Καὶ γὰρ ἑστήκασιν οἱ τοῖχοι νῦν ἀντὶ τροπαίων, σάλπιγγος λαμπροτέραν ἀφιέντες φωνὴν, τοῖς ἐν τῇ Δάφνῃ, τοῖς ἐν τῇ πόλει, τοῖς πόῤῥωθεν ἀφικνουμένοις, τοῖς συνοῦσι, τοῖς αὖθις ἐσομένοις ἀνθρώποις ἅπαντα διηγοῦνται διὰ τῆς ὄψεως, τὴν πάλην, τὴν συμπλοκὴν, τὴν νίκην τοῦ μάρτυρος. Τὸν γὰρ πόῤῥωθεν ἀφιστάμενον τοῦ προαστείου, καὶ τὸ μὲν μαρτύριον τοῦ ἁγίου τῆς λάρνακος ἔρημον, τὸν δὲ ναὸν τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος τὴν στέγην ἀφῃρημένον ὁρῶντα, εἰκὸς τὴν αἰτίαν τούτων ἑκατέρων ζητεῖν· εἶτα πᾶσαν μαθόντα τὴν ἱστορίαν, οὕτως ἀπελθεῖν ἐκεῖθεν. Τοιαῦτα τοῦ μάρτυρος τὰ κατορθώματα, τὰ μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν.

10. Διὸ καὶ τὴν ὑμετέραν μακαρίζω πόλιν, ὅτι πολλὴν περὶ τὸν ἅγιον τοῦτον ἐπεδείξασθε τὴν σπουδήν. Καὶ γὰρ τότε, ἡνίκα ἀπὸ τῆς Δάφνης ἐπανῄει, πᾶσα μὲν ἡμῖν ἡ πόλις εἰς τὴν ὁδὸν ἐξεχύθη, καὶ κεναὶ μὲν αἱ ἀγοραὶ ἀνδρῶν, κεναὶ δὲ γυναικῶν ἦσαν αἱ οἰκίαι, ἔρημοι δὲ παρθένων οἱ θάλαμοι. Οὕτω καὶ ἡλικία πᾶσα, καὶ φύσις ἑκατέρα τῆς πόλεως ἐξεπήδησαν, ὥσπερ πατέρα ἀποληψόμενοι χρόνιον, ἐκ μακρᾶς ἐπανιόντα τῆς ἀποδημίας. Καὶ ὑμεῖς μὲν αὐτὸν τῷ τῶν ὁμοζήλων ἀπεδώκατε χορῷ· ἡ δὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ χάρις οὐκ εἴασεν ἐκεῖ διηνεκῶς μεῖναι, ἀλλὰ πάλιν αὐτὸν τοῦ ποταμοῦ πέραν μετέστησεν, ὥστε πολλὰ τῶν χωρίων τῆς εὐωδίας ἐμπλησθῆναι τοῦ μάρτυρος. Καὶ οὐδὲ ἐνταῦθα ἐλθὼν μόνος ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι, ἀλλὰ ταχέως γείτονα καὶ ὁμόσκηνον τὸν ὁμότροπον ἔλαβε. Καὶ γὰρ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἐκοινώνησεν αὐτῷ τῆς αὐτῆς, καὶ παῤῥησίαν ἴσην ἐπεδείξατο τῆς εὐσεβείας ἕνεκεν. Τοσοῦτον γὰρ ἐπόνει τὸν χρόνον ἐκεῖ, βασιλεῖ συνεχῶς ἐπιστέλλων, ἄρχοντας ἐνοχλῶν, καὶ τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ σώματος λειτουργίαν εἰσφέρων τῷ μάρτυρι. Ἴστε γὰρ δήπου, καὶ μέμνησθε, ὅτι μὲν θέρους τῆς ἀκτῖνος μέσης κατεχούσης τὸν οὐρανὸν, μετὰ τῶν προσεδρευόντων αὐτῷ, καθ’ ἑκάστην ἐβάδιζεν ἐκεῖ τὴν ἡμέραν, οὐχ ὡς θεατὴς μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς κοινωνὸς τῶν γινομένων ἐσόμενος. Καὶ γὰρ λίθου συνεφήψατο πολλάκις, καὶ σχοῖνον εἵλκυσε, καὶ οἰκοδομίας δεομένῳ τινὸς, πρὸ τῶν ὑπουργούντων ὑπήκουσεν· ᾔδει γὰρ, ᾔδει πόσοι τούτων αὐτῷ κείσονται οἱ μισθοί. Διὸ καὶ τὴν σκηνὴν ἔλαχεν αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν, οὐ μάτην, ὡς ἔοικεν, ὁ θαυμαστὸς οὗτος τοῦ μάρτυρος ζηλωτής. Τοσοῦτον γὰρ ἐπόνει τὸν χρόνον ἐκεῖ, βασιλεῖ συνεχῶς ἐπιστέλλων, ἄρχοντας ἐνοχλῶν, καὶ τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ σώματος λειτουργίαν εἰσφέρων τῷ μάρτυρι. Ἴστε γὰρ δήπου, καὶ μέμνησθε, ὅτι μὲν θέρους τῆς ἀκτῖνος μέσης κατεχούσης τὸν οὐρανὸν, μετὰ τῶν προσεδρευόντων αὐτῷ, καθ’ ἑκάστην ἐβάδιζεν ἐκεῖ τὴν ἡμέραν, οὐχ ὡς θεατὴς μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς κοινωνὸς τῶν γινομένων ἐσόμενος. Καὶ γὰρ λίθου συνεφήψατο πολλάκις, καὶ σχοῖνον εἵλκυσε, καὶ οἰκοδομίας δεομένῳ τινὸς, πρὸ τῶν ὑπουργούντων ὑπήκουσεν· ᾔδει γὰρ, ᾔδει πόσοι τούτων αὐτῷ κείσονται οἱ μισθοί. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο διετέλει θεραπεύων τοὺς μάρτυρας, οὐκ οἰκοδομαῖς μόνον λαμπραῖς, οὐδὲ ἐπαλλήλοις ἑορταῖς, ἀλλὰ τῷ βελτίονι τούτων τρόπῳ. Τίς δέ ἐστιν οὗτος; Μιμεῖται τὸν βίον αὐτῶν, ζηλοῖ τὴν ἀνδρείαν, διὰ πάντων κατὰ δύναμιν τὴν εἰκόνα διασώζει τῶν μαρτύρων ἐν ἑαυτῷ· ὅρα γάρ· Ἐπέδωκαν ἐκεῖνοι τὰ σώματα τῇ σφαγῇ· ἐνέκρωσεν οὗτος τὰ μέλη τῆς σαρκὸς τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· ἔστησαν ἐκεῖνοι πρὸς φλόγα πυρὸς, ἔσβεσεν οὗτος τῆς ἐπιθυμίας τὴν φλόγα· ἐμαχήσαντο πρὸς ὀδόντας θηρίων ἐκεῖνοι, ἀλλὰ καὶ οὗτος τὸ χαλεπώτατον τῶν ἐν ἡμῖν παθῶν, τὴν ὀργὴν ἐκοίμισεν.

11. Ὑπὲρ δὴ τούτων ἁπάντων εὐχαριστήσωμεν τῷ Θεῷ, ὅτι καὶ μάρτυρας οὕτω γενναίους ἡμῖν ἐχαρίσατο, καὶ ποιμένας μαρτύρων ἀξίους, εἰς καταρτισμὸν τῶν ἁγίων, εἰς οἰκοδομὴν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ, μεθ’ οὗ τῷ Πατρὶ δόξα, τιμὴ, κράτος, σὺν τῷ ἁγίῳ καὶ ζωοποιῷ Πνεύματι, νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ, καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.

‘9. Indeed the walls now stand like a monument, uttering a sound clearer than a trumpet, and relating by their sight to those living in Daphne, those in the city, those arriving from afar, those living in our time, and those who will be in the future, everything: the fight, the confrontation, and the victory of the martyr. For it is natural that a person arriving at the suburb from afar and seeing, on the one hand, the martyr’s shrine (martyrion) bereft of the saint’s sarcophagus, and, on the other, the temple of Apollo missing its roof, should seek out the cause of each one of these events. Next, having heard the whole story, they will leave the place. Such are the martyr’s feats, after his death.

10. For the same reason, I call your city blessed too, because you demonstrated a great deal of enthusiasm for this holy man. Indeed, back then, when he was coming back from Daphne, our whole city poured out onto the road, and marketplaces were empty of men, houses empty of women, and chambers deserted by girls. Thus all age groups and both sexes bounded out of the city as if about to welcome a father returning from a long journey. Yet, although you commended him to the company of men sharing his zeal [other martyrs


Evidence ID


Saint Name

Meletios, bishop of Antioch, ob. 381 : S01192 Babylas, bishop and martyr in Antioch, and his companions, ob. 282-284 : S00061

Saint Name in Source


Type of Evidence

Literary - Sermons/Homilies


  • Greek

Evidence not before


Evidence not after


Activity not before


Activity not after


Place of Evidence - Region


Place of Evidence - City, village, etc

Antioch on the Orontes

Place of evidence - City name in other Language(s)

Antioch on the Orontes

Major author/Major anonymous work

John Chrysostom

Cult activities - Liturgical Activity

  • Sermon/homily

Cult activities - Festivals

  • Saint’s feast

Cult activities - Places

Cult building - independent (church)

Cult activities - Non Liturgical Practices and Customs

Visiting graves and shrines

Cult activities - Rejection, Condemnation, Scepticism

Destruction/desecration of saint's shrine

Cult Activities - Miracles

Miracle after death Punishing miracle Power over elements (fire, earthquakes, floods, weather)

Cult Activities - Protagonists in Cult and Narratives

Women Ecclesiastics - bishops Ecclesiastics - lesser clergy Pagans Monarchs and their family Crowds

Cult Activities - Relics

Bodily relic - entire body


John of Antioch, bishop of Constantinople, who came to be known as Chrysostom (the Golden Mouth), was born in 344/354 in Antioch on the Orontes where he studied under Libanius. He joined the Nicene Christian community of Antioch, led by bishop Meletios of Antioch, and was ordained priest by Meletios’ successor, Flavianos in 386. Acquiring a great reputation as a preacher, John was appointed as bishop of Constantinople in 397. Clashing with the bishop of Alexandria Theophilos and the empress Eudoxia in 403/404, Chrysostom was deposed and banished to Cucusus in Cappadocia and died in Comana of Pontus in 407. This homily was delivered in Antioch, most probably in 387, on the feast of Babylas which was, according to the martyrologies, 24 January (E01413) (Mayer 2003, 141). The text follows aspects of the author's extensive anti-pagan tract On Babylas and Against Julian and the Gentiles, which he published in the late 370s (E02671). The text of the homily on Babylas is preserved in six manuscripts, on which, see: Grillet and Guinot 1990, 281-292. (accessed 26/01/2017)


Chrysostom seems to refer to the shrine of the saint as not being the actual venue of this homily. This may suggest that some of the festal services for the martyr took place elsewhere – probably one of the city churches of Antioch. He also reveals that more than one homily was given during the feast of the saint, perhaps in the course of different services. As in the homily On *Philogonios (E00071), Chrysostom leaves the story proper to be related by the bishop and elder preachers, who remember past stories better – even though, in the late 380s, no contemporary of Babylas is likely to have been alive. Chrysostom undertakes to talk of posthumous miracles, and, in particular, of the famous controversy between the Christian community and the emperor Julian over the burial of Babylas near the temple of Apollo of Daphne in the suburbs of Antioch. The author starts with an anti-pagan introduction, targeting the pagan rejection of the Christian devotion to the tombs of the martyrs and the idea of posthumous miracles. Babylas was a bishop of Antioch who died during the Decian persecution, according to Eusebius of Caesarea (E00276), or under Numerian, according to his martyrdom account (E02684). Initially buried in the Christian cemetery of the city (the Koimeterion, on which see E02298), Babylas’ remains were transferred to a shrine built near Apollo’s temple at Daphne, under Caesar Gallus (351-354). This is the earliest recorded case of a transfer/translation of relics, and its purpose was to suppress the licentiousness prevailing in the suburb of Daphne, by establishing a rival cult for the pagan shrine (E02274). When Gallus’ brother, Julian the Apostate, came to Antioch in the wake of his campaign to Persia in 362, he ordered that the remains of the martyr be removed from the oracle (E01985; E02671). The remains were taken back to their original resting place by the Christians who carried the sarcophagus, provocatively singing verse 7 of Psalm 97: Confounded be all they that serve graven images, that boast themselves of idols (see E02293, E02274). It is not clear which (if any) of the rival Christian factions of Antioch of that time was responsible for this act of resistance to Julian's pagan regime, which was remembered with such pride. The sarcophagus was returned to the Koimeterion which in that period was controlled by the Arians. Chrysostom recounts these events alongside the martyrdom of Babylas in his earlier book on the subject (E02671). Here, he adds a reference to the much later third transfer of the remains of Babylas to a new shrine which was built by the Nicene bishop Meletios (360-381). This must have happened after Meletios took control of the churches and martyria of Antioch, between 379 and 381. The precise reasons for building this new shrine can only be conjectured. After Meletios’ death in Constantinople in 381, his body was ceremoniously carried back to Antioch, and buried at the shrine of Babylas (E02283). It seems very probable that this was part of Meletios’ plans for the new martyrium. An obvious motive could be Meletios’ effort to legitimise the position of himself and his successor as the only canonical bishops of the city, against their rival, Paulinos. It is possible that the new shrine of the martyred bishop Babylas was planned to become the new cemetery/mausoleum of the orthodox bishops of Antioch. An additional reason for needing a new shrine for that purpose may have been that the old martyr shrines, including the Koimeterion, had been used for the burial of the Arian clergy of Antioch. After the Nicenes took over these shrines, in the 380s, the presence of these heretical burials was regarded as disturbing, as we hear from another sermon of Chrysostom (see E02297).


Text: Grillet, B., Guinot, J.-N., Jean Chrysostome. Homélie sur Babylas (Sources Chrétiennes, 362; Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1990), 279-313 (with French translation and commentary). Migne, J.-P., Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Graeca 50 (Paris, 1862), 577-534. English Translation: Mayer, W., in: J. Leemans (ed.), 'Let Us Die That We May Live': Greek Homilies on Christian Martyrs from Asia Minor, Palestine and Syria (c. AD 350-AD 450) (London: Routledge, 2003), 140-148 (with commentary and bibliography). Further reading: Downey, G., Ancient Antioch (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), 153. Downey, G., "The shrines of St. Babylas at Antioch and Daphne," in: G.W. Elderkin and R. Stillwell (eds.), Antioch-on-the-Orontes II (Princeton: Publications of the Committee for the Excavation of Antioch and its vicinity, 1938), 45-48. Drobner, H.R., The Fathers of the Church: a Comprehensive Introduction (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007), 327-337. Kelly, J.N.D., Golden Mouth: The Story of John Chrysostom. Ascetic, Preacher, Bishop (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995). Mayer, W., "The Late Antique Church at Qausīyeh Reconsidered: Memory and Martyr-Burial in Syrian Antioch," in: J. Leemans (ed.), Martyrdom and Persecution in Late Antique Christianity: Festschrift Boudewijn Dehandschutter (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum Theologicarum Lovaniensium 241; Leuven: Peeters, 2010), 161-77. Mayer, W., and Allen, P., The Churches of Syrian Antioch (300‒638 CE) (Late Antique History and Religion 5; Leuven: Peeters, 2012), 32-49. Scorza Barcellona, F., “Martiri e confessori dell’etaÌ di Giuliano l’Apostata: dalla storia alla leggenda,” in F. E. Consolino (ed.), Pagani e cristiani da Giuliano l'Apostata al sacco di Roma. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi (Rende, 12/13 novembre 1993) (Soveria Mannelli, 1995), 53-83. Teitler, H.C., “Ammianus, Libanius, Chrysostomus, and the Martyrs of Antioch,” Vigiliae Christianae 67 (2013), 263-288. Teitler, H.C., The Last Pagan Emperor: Julian the Apostate and the War against Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).

Continued Description

and Christians], God’s grace did not let him stay there permanently, but transferred him once again across the river. Thus many places were filled with the martyr’s sweet smell. But he was not meant to be alone even when he came here, since he soon received as a neighbour and sharer of his dwelling a man who had shared with him the same way of life [Meletios]. For the latter had shared with him the same office, and displayed the same boldness on account of the true religion. For that reason, and not by chance, as it seems, was this admirable enthusiast of the martyr granted the same dwelling as him. Indeed, he spent such a long period of time labouring there, constantly writing letters to the emperor, bothering government officials, and offering the martyr the service of his own manual labour. You know, of course, and remember that he used to go there every day at high noon in summer, together with his associates, not just to inspect, but also in order to participate in the work. Indeed, several times did he help grab hold of a stone, and dragged a rope, and, when someone needed something related to the construction, he used to respond before the labourers themselves. For he knew how great rewards were in store for him, on account of all these acts. For this reason he kept doing service to the martyrs, not just by splendid buildings or successive festivals, but in the way which surpasses these. And which is that way? He imitated their life, he was an enthusiast of their courage, he preserved in himself, through every occasion, as much as he could, the image of the martyrs. For behold: they gave up their bodies to slaughter; he mortified the members of his flesh that are on earth; they faced the flame of fire; he quenched the flame of desire; they struggled with the teeth of beasts, but he also quelled the most savage of passions in us – rage. 11. Let us, then, give thanks to God for all these things: that He has granted us so valiant martyrs, and shepherds worthy of martyrs, for the instruction of the saints, for the edification of the body of Christ [Eph. 4:12], together with Whom be glory, honour, and power to the Father, with the holy and life-giving Spirit, now and forever, and to the ages of ages. Amen.’Text: Grillet and Guinot 1990. Summary and Translation: E. Rizos.

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